Objective: Sex disparities regarding outcomes for women after open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair have been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to review whether these disparities were also present at our institution for elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and whether specific factors predispose female patients to negative outcomes. Methods: All elective EVARs were identified from our three sites (Florida, Minnesota, and Arizona) from 2000 to 2018. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and three-year mortality. Secondary outcomes included complications requiring return to the operating room, length of hospitalization (LOH), intensive care unit (ICU) days, and location of discharge after hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess for the risk of complications. Results: There were 1986 EVARs; 1754 (88.3%) were performed in male and 232 (11.7%) in female patients. Female patients were older (79 years [interquartile range (IQR), 72-83 years] vs 76 years [IQR, 70-81 years]; P < .001), had a lower body mass index (median, 26.1 kg/m2 [IQR, 22.1-31.0 kg/m2] vs 28.3 kg/m2 [IQR, 25.3-31.6 kg/m2]; P < .001 and hematocrit (median, 37.6% [IQR, 33.4%-40.6%] vs 39.4% [IQR, 35.6%-42.6%]; P < .001) and had higher glomerular filtration rate (median, 84.4 mL/min per 1.73m2 [IQR, 62.3-103 mL/min/1.73 m2] vs 51.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 [IQR, 41.8-60.8 mL/min/1.73 m2]; P < .001. Female patients were also more likely to be active smokers (15.3% vs 13.1%; P < .001) and have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (24.7% vs 15.3%; P = .001). They were less likely to have coronary artery disease (31.6% vs 45.6%; P < .001). Aneurysms in women were slightly smaller in size (median, 54 mm [IQR, 50.0-58.0 mm] vs 55 mm [IQR, 51.0-60.0 mm]; P = .004). In-hospital mortality and mortality at the 3-year follow-up was not significant between female and male patients (0.86% vs 0.17%; P = .11 and 38.4% vs 36.2%; P = .57). However, female patients returned to the operating room with a greater frequency than male patients (3.9% vs 1.4%; P = .011). LOH (mean, 3.4 ± 3.8 days vs 2.5 ± 2.4 days; P < .001) and ICU days (mean, 0.3 ± 2.0 days vs 0.1 ± 0.5 days; P < .001) were longer for female patients. After hospitalization, female patients were discharged to rehabilitation facilities in greater proportion (12.7% vs 3.1%; P < .001) than their male counterparts. On multivariable analysis, female sex was associated with a return to the operating room (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.5; P = .02), longer LOH (Coef 4.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.5; P = .00007), more ICU days (Coef 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0; P = .005), and a greater likelihood of posthospitalization rehabilitation facility placement (odds ratio, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4; P = .0001). Conclusions: Our three-site, single-institution data support sex disparities to the detriment of female patients regarding return to the operating room after EVAR, LOH, ICU days, and discharge to rehabilitation facility. However, we found no differences for in-hospital or 3-year mortality.
- Abdominal aortic aneurysms
- Disparities in outcomes according to sex
- Sex differences
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine