What is type 2 diabetes?

Meera Shah, Adrian Vella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. It is associated with reduced life expectancy owing to a greater risk of heart disease, stroke, peripheral neuropathy, renal disease, blindness and amputation. The best known predictors of increased diabetes risk are elevated fasting plasma glucose, abnormal glucose tolerance test, obesity and evidence of impaired insulin action. However, the mechanisms by which people with impaired fasting glucose and/or abnormal glucose tolerance 'progress' to overt T2DM are not completely understood. Moreover, T2DM is defined in a 'negative' sense (hyperglycemia not accounted for by autoimmune destruction of islet cells or other known causes). This has two potentially negative consequences - first, T2DM may actually encompass a heterogenous group of hyperglycaemic disorders with multiple different mechanisms; second, defining such a complex disease affecting many different metabolic pathways simply in terms of hyperglycaemia may oversimplify the nature of the condition. In this review, we explore some of the mechanisms suggested to underlie T2DM, and attempt to remind readers that hyperglycaemia is only one of its characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)687-691
Number of pages5
JournalMedicine (United Kingdom)
Volume42
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014

Fingerprint

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hyperglycemia
Glucose
Fasting
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
Blindness
Glucose Tolerance Test
Life Expectancy
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Islets of Langerhans
Amputation
Heart Diseases
Obesity
Stroke
Insulin
Kidney

Keywords

  • Incretin hormones
  • insulin action
  • insulin secretion
  • pre-diabetes
  • type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

What is type 2 diabetes? / Shah, Meera; Vella, Adrian.

In: Medicine (United Kingdom), Vol. 42, No. 12, 01.12.2014, p. 687-691.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shah, Meera ; Vella, Adrian. / What is type 2 diabetes?. In: Medicine (United Kingdom). 2014 ; Vol. 42, No. 12. pp. 687-691.
@article{97de881a6f7d4d0c9f4ed448674fa881,
title = "What is type 2 diabetes?",
abstract = "Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. It is associated with reduced life expectancy owing to a greater risk of heart disease, stroke, peripheral neuropathy, renal disease, blindness and amputation. The best known predictors of increased diabetes risk are elevated fasting plasma glucose, abnormal glucose tolerance test, obesity and evidence of impaired insulin action. However, the mechanisms by which people with impaired fasting glucose and/or abnormal glucose tolerance 'progress' to overt T2DM are not completely understood. Moreover, T2DM is defined in a 'negative' sense (hyperglycemia not accounted for by autoimmune destruction of islet cells or other known causes). This has two potentially negative consequences - first, T2DM may actually encompass a heterogenous group of hyperglycaemic disorders with multiple different mechanisms; second, defining such a complex disease affecting many different metabolic pathways simply in terms of hyperglycaemia may oversimplify the nature of the condition. In this review, we explore some of the mechanisms suggested to underlie T2DM, and attempt to remind readers that hyperglycaemia is only one of its characteristics.",
keywords = "Incretin hormones, insulin action, insulin secretion, pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes",
author = "Meera Shah and Adrian Vella",
year = "2014",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.mpmed.2014.09.013",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "42",
pages = "687--691",
journal = "Medicine (United States)",
issn = "1357-3039",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - What is type 2 diabetes?

AU - Shah, Meera

AU - Vella, Adrian

PY - 2014/12/1

Y1 - 2014/12/1

N2 - Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. It is associated with reduced life expectancy owing to a greater risk of heart disease, stroke, peripheral neuropathy, renal disease, blindness and amputation. The best known predictors of increased diabetes risk are elevated fasting plasma glucose, abnormal glucose tolerance test, obesity and evidence of impaired insulin action. However, the mechanisms by which people with impaired fasting glucose and/or abnormal glucose tolerance 'progress' to overt T2DM are not completely understood. Moreover, T2DM is defined in a 'negative' sense (hyperglycemia not accounted for by autoimmune destruction of islet cells or other known causes). This has two potentially negative consequences - first, T2DM may actually encompass a heterogenous group of hyperglycaemic disorders with multiple different mechanisms; second, defining such a complex disease affecting many different metabolic pathways simply in terms of hyperglycaemia may oversimplify the nature of the condition. In this review, we explore some of the mechanisms suggested to underlie T2DM, and attempt to remind readers that hyperglycaemia is only one of its characteristics.

AB - Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. It is associated with reduced life expectancy owing to a greater risk of heart disease, stroke, peripheral neuropathy, renal disease, blindness and amputation. The best known predictors of increased diabetes risk are elevated fasting plasma glucose, abnormal glucose tolerance test, obesity and evidence of impaired insulin action. However, the mechanisms by which people with impaired fasting glucose and/or abnormal glucose tolerance 'progress' to overt T2DM are not completely understood. Moreover, T2DM is defined in a 'negative' sense (hyperglycemia not accounted for by autoimmune destruction of islet cells or other known causes). This has two potentially negative consequences - first, T2DM may actually encompass a heterogenous group of hyperglycaemic disorders with multiple different mechanisms; second, defining such a complex disease affecting many different metabolic pathways simply in terms of hyperglycaemia may oversimplify the nature of the condition. In this review, we explore some of the mechanisms suggested to underlie T2DM, and attempt to remind readers that hyperglycaemia is only one of its characteristics.

KW - Incretin hormones

KW - insulin action

KW - insulin secretion

KW - pre-diabetes

KW - type 2 diabetes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84920030730&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84920030730&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.mpmed.2014.09.013

DO - 10.1016/j.mpmed.2014.09.013

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84920030730

VL - 42

SP - 687

EP - 691

JO - Medicine (United States)

JF - Medicine (United States)

SN - 1357-3039

IS - 12

ER -