The present report, compares two murine models of virus induced chronic relapsing demyelination. MHV-induced demyelination in the BALB/c mouse results from the direct virus mediated cytolysis of oligodendrocytes. Extensive remyelination by oligodendrocytes is noted. Recurrent demyelination occurs in small areas. Infectious virus persists and viral antigens are localized within oligodendrocytes and their processes. TMEV-induced demyelination in SJL/J mice is associated with perivascular inflammatory infiltrates and is diminished by immunosuppressive measures. Remyelination by oligodendrocytes is delayed and incomplete. Chronic demyelination is widespread and associated with perivascular inflammatory infiltrates. The virus persists and viral antigen is localized within oligodendrocytes. The findings indicate virus persistence in oligodendrocytes in both models. Demyelination follows the disintegration of infected oligodendrocytes. Virus replication in oligodendrocytes is responsible for cell lysis in the MHV model whereas immune mediated injury of infected oligodendrocytes is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of demyelination in the TMEV model.