Venous invasion by hepatic tumors most commonly occurs with hepatocellular carcinoma and is associated with worse patient prognosis. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of tumor thrombus in the liver. Moreover, differentiating between bland and tumor thrombus in the liver has important diagnostic, staging, therapeutic, and prognostic implications and may require a multimodal imaging approach including ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of hepatic malignancies with associated tumor thrombus is dependent on tumor type, disease extent within the liver, liver hemodynamics, and underlying liver function. Treatment of such tumors may involve surgical, locoregional and/or systemic therapies. The current review will focus on the imaging characteristics of venous invasion by hepatic tumors. The imaging findings most useful for differentiating hepatic venous tumor thrombus and bland thrombus will be highlighted and demonstrated with imaging examples. Imaging findings with implications for subsequent patient management will be described.
- Hepatic tumors
- Venous invasion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging