The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease: Part I

Panupong Jiamsripong, Martina Mookadam, Tadaaki Honda, Bijoy K. Khandheria, Farouk Mookadam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic risk factors and physical conditions that are accompanied by an enhanced propensity toward the development of type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. It presents a combination of atherosclerosis risk including atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, elevated plasma glucose, hypercoagulability, and a proinflammatory state. The 2 major underlying risk factors for the metabolic syndrome are obesity and insulin resistance. Exacerbating factors are physical inactivity, advancing age, and endocrine and genetic factors. Associated hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and elevated adipokine levels (adipose cytokines) lead to vascular endothelial dysfunction, an abnormal lipid profile, hypertension, and vascular inflammation, all of which promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In this 2-part series, the authors present an up-to-date and detailed systematic review of the literature on this important topic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-161
Number of pages7
JournalPreventive cardiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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