Current therapies for breast cancer prevention only prevent estrogen receptor positive (ERþ) disease and toxicity limits use of these agents. Vitamin D is a potential prevention therapy for both ERþ and ER- disease and is safe with few side effects. This study evaluates the effect of 1-year of vitamin D supplementation on mammographic density (MD), a biomarker of breast cancer risk in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Premenopausal women with ≥25% MD and no history of cancer were randomly assigned to 2,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D or placebo orally daily for 1 year. Change in percent MD was evaluated using Cumulus software after all participants completed treatment. Three hundred women enrolled between January 2011 and December 2013 with a mean age of 43 and diverse ethnicity [14% Hispanic, 12% African American (AA)]. Supplementation significantly increased vitamin D levels compared with placebo (14.5 ng/mL vs. -1.6 ng/mL; P < 0.0001) with all participants on the vitamin D arm achieving vitamin D sufficiency at 12 months. Vitamin D was safe and well tolerated. After adjustment for baseline MD, the mean between-arm difference (vitamin D vs. placebo) at 1 year was -0.75 (-0.26, 1.76; P = 0.56). A greater effect was seen for women with ≥50% MD and AA women, although neither reached significance. This randomized controlled trial demonstrated significant improvement in vitamin D levels with 2,000 IU for 1 year, with 100% of supplemented women achieving sufficiency. However, a null effect was seen regarding change in MD for premenopausal women (the primary outcome of the study). Prevention Relevance: Current therapies for breast cancer prevention only prevent estrogen receptor positive (ERþ) disease and are underutilized due to toxicity and side effects. Vitamin D is a potential prevention therapy for both ERþ and ER- disease and is safe with few side effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research