Tendon and ligament tissue engineering

Spencer P. Lake, Qian Liu, Malcolm Xing, Leanne E. Iannucci, Zhanwen Wang, Chunfeng Zhao

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Tendon and ligament are the major stabilizers in musculoskeletal system. Tendon/ligament injuries are common, especially in young generation. Loss of tendon/ligament support leads to tremendous functional disability. Thus restoration of tendon/ligament function after injury becomes crucial. However, the self-repair or regenerative capability of tendon/ligament is low due to their hypocellular and hypovascular nature. Therefore tissue engineering approaches to enhance tendon/ligament repair and regeneration or replace a nonrepairable tendon/ligament has indeed shed light on the future in this field. In this chapter the typical tissue-engineered tendon/ligament approaches with the basic elements and cutting edge technologies are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPrinciples of Tissue Engineering
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9780128184226
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • 3D bioprinting
  • Growth factor
  • Ligament
  • Scaffold
  • Stem cell
  • Tendon
  • Tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)


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