Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has demonstrated varying levels of efficacy against seasonal influenza; however, LAIV may be used as a tool to measure interactions between the human microbiome and a live, replicating virus. To increase our knowledge of this interaction,we measured changes to the nasal microbiome in subjects who received LAIV to determine if associations between influenza-specific IgA production and the nasal microbiome exist after immunization with a live virus vaccine. The anterior nares of 47 healthy subjects were swabbed pre- (Day 0) and post- (Days 7 and 28) LAIV administration, and nasal washes were conducted on Days 0 and 28.We performed next-generation sequencing on amplified 16s rRNA genes and measuredmucosal influenza-specific IgA titers via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A significant increase in alpha diversity was identified (Observed,CHAO, and ACE) between Days 7 vs 0 (p-values = 0.017, 0.005, 0.005, respectively) and between Days 28 vs 0 (p-values = 0.054, 0.030, 0.050, respectively). Several significant associations between the presence of different microbial species, including Lactobacillus helveticus, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus infantis, Veillonella dispar, and Bacteroides ovatus, and influenza-specific H1 and H3 IgA antibody response were demonstrated. These data suggest that LAIV alters the nasal microbiome, allowing several less-Abundant OTUs to establish a community niche. Additionally, specific alterations in the nasal microbiome are significantly associated with variations in influenza-specific IgA antibody production and could be clinically relevant.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)