Systemic hypertension in low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction

Mackram Eleid, Rick A. Nishimura, Paul Sorajja, Barry A Borlaug

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

76 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND-: Low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction is an increasingly recognized entity, and symptomatic patients may benefit from aortic valve replacement. However, systemic hypertension frequently coexists with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis, which itself may cause elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures with resultant symptoms of dyspnea. METHODS AND RESULTS-: Symptomatic patients with hypertension (aortic systolic pressure >140 mm Hg) and low-gradient (mean gradient <40 mm Hg) severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area <1 cm) with preserved ejection fraction (ejection fraction >50%) who underwent invasive hemodynamic catheterization of the left and right sides of the heart received infusion of intravenous sodium nitroprusside to reduce blood pressure and arterial afterload. At baseline, patients had severe hypertension (aortic systolic pressure, 176±26 mm Hg), pulmonary hypertension (mean pressure, 39±12 mm Hg), elevated LV end-diastolic pressure (19±5 mm Hg), and reduced stroke volume (33±8 mL/m). All measures of afterload were reduced with nitroprusside (P<0.001 for all). Nitroprusside reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure (25±10 mm Hg) and LV end-diastolic pressure (11±5 mm Hg; P<0.001 for both compared with baseline). Aortic valve area (0.86±0.11 to 1.02±0.16 cm; P=0.001) and mean gradient (27±5 to 29±6 mm Hg; P=0.02) increased with nitroprusside. CONCLUSIONS-: Systemic hypertension in low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction is associated with elevated LV filling pressures and pulmonary hypertension. Treatment of hypertension with vasodilator therapy results in a lowering of the total LV afterload, with a decrease in LV filling pressures and pulmonary artery pressures. These findings have important implications for the management of patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction and hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1349-1353
Number of pages5
JournalCirculation
Volume128
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 17 2013

Fingerprint

Aortic Valve Stenosis
Nitroprusside
Hypertension
Ventricular Pressure
Blood Pressure
Arterial Pressure
Aortic Valve
Pulmonary Hypertension
Pressure
Pulmonary Artery
Vasodilator Agents
Intravenous Infusions
Catheterization
Stroke Volume
Dyspnea
Hemodynamics
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • aortic valve stenosis
  • hypertension
  • stroke volume

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Systemic hypertension in low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction. / Eleid, Mackram; Nishimura, Rick A.; Sorajja, Paul; Borlaug, Barry A.

In: Circulation, Vol. 128, No. 12, 17.09.2013, p. 1349-1353.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - BACKGROUND-: Low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction is an increasingly recognized entity, and symptomatic patients may benefit from aortic valve replacement. However, systemic hypertension frequently coexists with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis, which itself may cause elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures with resultant symptoms of dyspnea. METHODS AND RESULTS-: Symptomatic patients with hypertension (aortic systolic pressure >140 mm Hg) and low-gradient (mean gradient <40 mm Hg) severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area <1 cm) with preserved ejection fraction (ejection fraction >50%) who underwent invasive hemodynamic catheterization of the left and right sides of the heart received infusion of intravenous sodium nitroprusside to reduce blood pressure and arterial afterload. At baseline, patients had severe hypertension (aortic systolic pressure, 176±26 mm Hg), pulmonary hypertension (mean pressure, 39±12 mm Hg), elevated LV end-diastolic pressure (19±5 mm Hg), and reduced stroke volume (33±8 mL/m). All measures of afterload were reduced with nitroprusside (P<0.001 for all). Nitroprusside reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure (25±10 mm Hg) and LV end-diastolic pressure (11±5 mm Hg; P<0.001 for both compared with baseline). Aortic valve area (0.86±0.11 to 1.02±0.16 cm; P=0.001) and mean gradient (27±5 to 29±6 mm Hg; P=0.02) increased with nitroprusside. CONCLUSIONS-: Systemic hypertension in low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction is associated with elevated LV filling pressures and pulmonary hypertension. Treatment of hypertension with vasodilator therapy results in a lowering of the total LV afterload, with a decrease in LV filling pressures and pulmonary artery pressures. These findings have important implications for the management of patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction and hypertension.

AB - BACKGROUND-: Low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction is an increasingly recognized entity, and symptomatic patients may benefit from aortic valve replacement. However, systemic hypertension frequently coexists with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis, which itself may cause elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures with resultant symptoms of dyspnea. METHODS AND RESULTS-: Symptomatic patients with hypertension (aortic systolic pressure >140 mm Hg) and low-gradient (mean gradient <40 mm Hg) severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area <1 cm) with preserved ejection fraction (ejection fraction >50%) who underwent invasive hemodynamic catheterization of the left and right sides of the heart received infusion of intravenous sodium nitroprusside to reduce blood pressure and arterial afterload. At baseline, patients had severe hypertension (aortic systolic pressure, 176±26 mm Hg), pulmonary hypertension (mean pressure, 39±12 mm Hg), elevated LV end-diastolic pressure (19±5 mm Hg), and reduced stroke volume (33±8 mL/m). All measures of afterload were reduced with nitroprusside (P<0.001 for all). Nitroprusside reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure (25±10 mm Hg) and LV end-diastolic pressure (11±5 mm Hg; P<0.001 for both compared with baseline). Aortic valve area (0.86±0.11 to 1.02±0.16 cm; P=0.001) and mean gradient (27±5 to 29±6 mm Hg; P=0.02) increased with nitroprusside. CONCLUSIONS-: Systemic hypertension in low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction is associated with elevated LV filling pressures and pulmonary hypertension. Treatment of hypertension with vasodilator therapy results in a lowering of the total LV afterload, with a decrease in LV filling pressures and pulmonary artery pressures. These findings have important implications for the management of patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction and hypertension.

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