State-of-the-art treatment of coccidioidomycosis

Skin and soft-tissue infections

Janis E. Blair

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection common in the southwestern United States that is caused by the endemic Coccidioides species of fungus. Coccidioidal infections are generally manifested as self-limited respiratory illnesses, but affected patients rarely present with coccidioidomycosis in extrapulmonary locations. Skin and soft-tissue coccidioidomycosis may occur in 15% to 67% of patients with disseminated infection. Skin manifestations of coccidioidomycosis can either be reactive rashes, such as erythema multiforme or erythema nodosum associated with primary pulmonary infection, or they can be the result of extrapulmonary dissemination of the infection to the skin. As many as 90% of persons with disseminated infection to the skin have other extrapulmonary sites of infection, and the presence of coccidioidal skin lesions should prompt an investigation for other extrapulmonary foci of infection. Lymph nodes are a common site of extrapulmonary infection. Nearly every organ system and soft-tissue have been described as infected with Coccididioides species, but subcutaneous abscesses, phlegmon, and sinus tracts are not uncommon and often are themselves the result of coccidioidal infection in neighboring lymph nodes, bones, or joints. A biopsy of the abnormal area is the most direct way to diagnose skin and soft-tissue lesions. Fluconazole and itraconazole are preferred therapeutic agents, and surgical intervention may be required as an adjunctive measure. This article reviews the types and locations of disseminated infections, as well as diagnostic studies and treatment of this difficult-to-treat manifestation of coccidioidomycosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Pages411-421
Number of pages11
Volume1111
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2007

Publication series

NameAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume1111
ISSN (Print)00778923
ISSN (Electronic)17496632

Fingerprint

Coccidioidomycosis
Soft Tissue Infections
Skin
Tissue
Infection
Therapeutics
Itraconazole
Biopsy
Fluconazole
Fungi
Lymph Nodes
Southwestern United States
Coccidioides
Bone
Erythema Multiforme
Skin Manifestations
Erythema Nodosum
Cellulitis
Mycoses
Exanthema

Keywords

  • Antifungal
  • Coccidioidomycosis
  • Dissemination
  • Infection
  • Skin infection
  • Soft-tissue
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Blair, J. E. (2007). State-of-the-art treatment of coccidioidomycosis: Skin and soft-tissue infections. In Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Vol. 1111, pp. 411-421). (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences; Vol. 1111). https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1406.010

State-of-the-art treatment of coccidioidomycosis : Skin and soft-tissue infections. / Blair, Janis E.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 1111 2007. p. 411-421 (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences; Vol. 1111).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Blair, JE 2007, State-of-the-art treatment of coccidioidomycosis: Skin and soft-tissue infections. in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. vol. 1111, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1111, pp. 411-421. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1406.010
Blair JE. State-of-the-art treatment of coccidioidomycosis: Skin and soft-tissue infections. In Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 1111. 2007. p. 411-421. (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences). https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1406.010
Blair, Janis E. / State-of-the-art treatment of coccidioidomycosis : Skin and soft-tissue infections. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 1111 2007. pp. 411-421 (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences).
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