Current protocols for chondrocyte expansion and chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells fail to reduce phenotypic loss and to mitigate hypertrophic tendency. To this end, cell genetic manipulation is gaining pace as a means of generating cells with stable chondrocyte phenotype. Herein, we provide an overview of candidate genes that either induce cartilage regeneration or inhibit cartilage degeneration. We further discuss in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo viral transduction and non-viral transfection strategies for targeted cells (chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and synovial cells), along with the most representative results obtained in pre-clinical models and in clinical trials. We highlight current challenges and associated risks that slowdown clinical acceptance and commercialisation of gene transfer technologies.
- Cartilage tissue engineering
- Gene engineering
- Genetically engineered cells
- Non-viral transfection systems
- Viral transduction systems
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology