Soy-based infant formula feeding and heavy menstrual bleeding among young African American women

Kristen Upson, Quaker E. Harmon, Shannon K Laughlin-Tommaso, David M. Umbach, Donna D. Baird

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND:: Phytoestrogen exposure from soy formula feeding during infancy may disrupt reproductive system development, resulting in altered menstrual bleeding in adulthood. METHODS:: We investigated this relationship in a cohort of 1,696 young African American women using enrollment data from the Study of Environment, Lifestyle & Fibroids (2010-2012). Questionnaire data on soy formula feeding were available for 1,553 participants, 89% based on mother’s report. Menstrual bleeding outcomes including those indicative of heavy menstrual bleeding were ascertained by interview. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between soy formula feeding and menstrual bleeding outcomes using log-binomial regression and log-multinomial regression, comparing participants ever fed and never fed soy formula. RESULTS:: We observed associations between soy formula feeding and variables indicating a history of heavy menstrual bleeding, including ever experiencing heavy, gushing-type bleeding (RR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4), ever use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for heavy bleeding (RR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.6), and ever use of a contraceptive method for heavy bleeding (RR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9-1.6). Among the subset of participants with menses in the past year who did not use medication that may alter menstrual flow (n=762), our data suggested that soy formula feeding was associated with heavier flow and the adverse impact of menstrual bleeding on quality of life, but confidence intervals were wide. CONCLUSIONS:: Our data suggested that soy formula feeding is associated with heavy menstrual bleeding. Our results support the idea that infancy is a susceptible developmental window for female reproductive function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StateAccepted/In press - May 17 2016


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

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