We assessed whether oral insulin slowed metabolic decline after 1 year of treatment in individuals at high risk for type 1 diabetes. Two oral insulin trials that did not show efficacy overall and had type 1 diabetes as the primary end point were analyzed: the Diabetes Prevention Trial– Type 1 (DPT-1) and the TrialNet oral insulin trials. Oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline and after 1 year of treatment were analyzed. Among those at high risk (with a Diabetes Prevention Trial–Type 1 Risk Score [DPTRS] ‡6.75), the area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide increased significantly from baseline to 1 year in each oral insulin group, whereas the AUC glucose increased significantly in each placebo group. At 1 year, the AUC C-peptide/AUC glucose (AUC Ratio) was significantly higher in the oral insulin group than in the placebo group in each trial (P < 0.05; P 5 0.057 when adjusted for age in the TrialNet trial) and in both trials combined (P < 0.01 with or without adjustment for age). For a DPTRS <6.75, oral insulin groups did not differ from placebo groups in the AUC Ratio. The findings suggest that 1 year of treatment with oral insulin slows metabolic deterioration in individuals at high risk for type 1 diabetes. Moreover, the findings further suggest that metabolic end points can be useful adjuncts to the diagnostic end point in assessments of preventive treatments for the disorder.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism