Severity of Cytokine Release Syndrome Influences Outcome After Axicabtagene Ciloleucel for Large B cell Lymphoma: Results from the US Lymphoma CAR-T Consortium

Miriam T. Jacobs, Michael D. Jain, Feng Gao, Loretta J. Nastoupil, Jay Y. Spiegel, Yi Lin, Saurabh Dahiya, Matthew Lunning, Lazaros Lekakis, Patrick M. Reagan, Olalekan O. Oluwole, Joseph McGuirk, Abhinav Deol, Alison Sehgal, Andre Goy, Brian T. Hill, Charalambos Andreadis, Javier Munoz, Julio C. Chavez, N. Nora BennaniAaron P. Rapoport, Julie M. Vose, David B. Miklos, Sattva S. Neelapu, Armin Ghobadi, Frederick L. Locke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The majority of patients with large B-cell lymphoma treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, develop cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Whether the lack of development of CRS with axi-cel is associated with inferior lymphoma outcomes is unknown. Additionally, relationship between CRS grade and lymphoma outcome is not well established. Methods: The US Lymphoma CAR T Consortium includes seventeen US academic centers that contribute data independently of manufacturers. We analyzed the modified intent-to-treat population of 275 patients receiving axi-cel in two different ways: 1) Two group analysis comparing no CRS with any grade CRS; 2) Three group analysis comparing grade 0 CRS with grade 1 to 2 CRS, and grade 3-5 CRS. Results: In this large multi-center observational cohort of 275 patients receiving axi-cel, 9% (n = 24) did not develop CRS, 84% (n = 232) developed grade 1-2 CRS, and 7% (n = 19) developed grade 3 to 5 CRS. Patients without CRS, compared with those having any grade CRS, had similar overall response rates (ORR), lower complete response (CR) rates and inferior progression free survival (PFS) with no statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS). Patients experiencing grade 1 to 2 CRS had superior CR rate and PFS, as compared to those without CRS or with grade 3 to 5 CRS. Grade 3 to 5 CRS was associated with a worse OS. Conclusion: Overall, durable responses were seen in patients that did not develop CRS, however grade 1 to 2 CRS was associated with better outcomes while those with grade 3 to 5 experienced the worse outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Axicabtagene ciloleucel
  • Cellular therapy
  • CRS
  • Lymphoid malignancy
  • Responses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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