Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are specialized cells that are widely distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. EECs sense luminal content and release hormones, such as: ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon like peptide 1, peptide YY, insulin like peptide 5, and oxyntomodulin. These hormones can enter the circulation to act on distant targets or act locally on neighboring cells and neuronal pathways to modulate food digestion, food intake, energy balance and body weight. Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with alterations in the levels of enteroendocrine hormones. Evidence also suggests that modified regulation and release of gut hormones are the result of compensatory mechanisms in states of excess adipose tissue and hyperglycemia. This review collects the evidence available detailing pathophysiological alterations in enteroendocrine hormones and their association with appetite, obesity and glycemic control.
- Enteroendocrine hormones
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health