Background and Aims: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing the risk of malignancy between patients treated with vedolizumab vs. tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) antagonists in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Methods: Using an administrative claims database, we identified patients with IBD without prior malignancy who were new users of either vedolizumab or TNFα antagonists between 2014–2018, with no prior exposure to either biologic or in preceding 1 y and had insurance coverage for at least 1 y after treatment initiation. We estimated incidence rate of malignancy (solid organ, hematological or skin cancers) in patients treated with vedolizumab and TNFα antagonists, and compared risk using Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: We included 4807 patients treated with TNFα antagonists (age, 41 ± 15 y, 60% with Crohn’s disease [CD]) of whom 65 developed malignancy over 7214 person-year [PY] follow-up (incidence rate [IR], 9.0 per 1000-PY), and 759 patients treated with vedolizumab (age, 46 ± 16y, 42% CD) of whom 11 developed malignancy over 950-PY follow-up (IR, 11.6). No difference was observed in the incidence of malignancy between vedolizumab versus TNFα antagonists (incidence rate ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.61–2.45). After adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidity burden, disease phenotype and concomitant use of immunomodulators, no difference was observed in time to incident malignancy between vedolizumab versus TNFα antagonists (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.61–2.19). Similar results were observed on stratified analysis by age and concomitant immunomodulators, and after excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Conclusions: In an observational study of patients with IBD, no differences were observed in the risk of incident malignancy in patients treated with vedolizumab versus TNFα antagonists.
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