Risk factors for hydrocephalus requiring external ventricular drainage in patients with intraventricular hemorrhage

Joshua D. Hughes, Ross Puffer, Alejandro Rabinstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


Object External ventricular drainage (EVD) after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) without symptomatic hydrocephalus is controversial. The object of this study was to examine indicators or the timeframe for hydrocephalus in patients not immediately treated with EVD after IVH. Methods Records from 2007 to 2014 were searched for "intraventricular hemorrhage" or "IVH." Inclusion criteria were IVH after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), trauma, tumor, or vascular anomalies. Exclusion criteria were IVH with more than minimal subarachnoid hemorrhage, catastrophic ICH, layering IVH only, or hydrocephalus treated immediately with EVD. IVH was measured with the modified Graeb Score (mGS). An mGS of 5 indicates a full ventricle with dilation. Statistics included chi-square, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests; receiver operating characteristics; and uni- and multivariate logistic regression. Results One hundred five patients met the criteria; of these, 30 (28.6%) required EVD. Panventricular IVH was the most common pattern (n = 49, 46.7%), with 25 of these patients (51%) requiring EVD. The median mGS was 18 ±5.4 (range 12-29) and 9 ±4.5 (range 2-21) in the EVD and No-EVD groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Factors associated with EVD were radiological hydrocephalus at presentation, midline shift > 5 mm, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score < 8, mGS > 13, third ventricle mGS = 5, and fourth ventricle mGS = 5. On multivariate analysis, GCS score < 8 [4.02 (range 1.13-14.84), p = 0.032], mGS > 13 [3.83 (range 1.02-14.89), p = 0.046], and fourth ventricle mGS = 5 [5.01 (range 1.26-22.78), p = 0.022] remained significant. Most patients treated with EVD (n = 25, 83.3%) required it soon after presentation [6.4 ±3.3 (range 1.5-14) hrs]. The remaining 5 patients (16.7%) had a delayed EVD requirement [70.7 ±22.7 (range 50-104.5) hrs]. Conclusions In this study population, the risk for EVD was variable, but greater with mGS > 13, coma, and a dilated fourth ventricle. While the need for EVD occurs within the 1st day after IVH in most patients, a minority require EVD after 48 hours.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1439-1446
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015


  • External ventricular drainage
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage
  • Ventriculostomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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