Background Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) may be at higher risk of malignancy after liver transplantation (LT) compared to other LT recipients. We aimed to determine the cumulative incidence of/risk factors for long-term cancer-related mortality in patients with PSC after LT. Methods All adult patients underwent LT for PSC without cholangiocarcinoma from 1984 to 2012, with follow-up through June 2015. We estimated cumulative incidence, risk factors, and mortality from de novo malignancies after LT. Results Two hundred ninety-three patients were identified (mean [SD] age, 47  years; 63.3% males; 2.4% smoking at LT). Over a median of 11.5 years (range, 6.4-18.6 years), 64 patients (21.8%) developed 73 nonskin cancers, including 46 solid-organ cancers (renal, 11; colorectal, 11; prostate, 7; breast, 5; pancreas, 5; ovarian/endometrial/vulvar cancers, 3; and de novo cholangiocarcinoma, 4). Twenty-two patients developed hematologic malignancies (posttransplant lymphoproliferative diseases, 18; Hodgkin disease, 2; and myelodysplastic syndrome, 2). Five patients developed melanoma. The 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year cumulative incidences of cancer were 2.1%, 8.6%, 18.7%, and 27%, respectively. Mortality of patients with PSC who developed cancer was higher than that of patients with PSC without cancer (hazard ratio, 2.2; P < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, recipient's age and elevated pre-LT international normalized ratio were associated with increased risk of de novo (nonskin) malignancy. Conclusion The 10-year cumulative risk of cancer after LT for advanced-stage PSC was 18.7%, with posttransplant lymphoproliferative diseases, colorectal cancer, and renal cell cancer being the most common. Post-LT de novo nonskin cancer decreased overall posttransplant survival. Only recipient's age and elevated international normalized ratio at LT were associated with increased nonskin cancer risk.
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