The objective of the study was to provide contemporary evidence on regional variation in hospitalization outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) in the United States. Using the National Inpatient Sample, we compared hospitalization outcomes among primary HF admissions (2013 to 2014) among the 4 Census regions of the United States. Overall, an estimated 1.9 million HF hospitalizations occurred in the United States over the study period. Mortality rate was 3%, the mean length of stay was 5.3 days, the median cost of hospitalization was US$7,248, and the rate of routine home discharge was 51%. There was a significant regional variation for all end points (p <0.001); for example, compared with other regions of the country, the risk-adjusted rate of in-hospital mortality was highest in the Northeast (3.2%) and lowest in the Midwest (2.7%); and within each region, these mortalities were higher in the rural locations (range: 3.0% to 3.8%) than in the urban locations (range: 2.7% to 3.1%). In addition, the Northeast region had the longest length of stay (mean: 5.9 days) and the lowest risk-adjusted rate of routine home discharge (42%). However, the cost of hospitalization was highest in the West (median: US$8,898) and lowest in the South (US$6,366). A similar pattern of variation was found in subgroup analysis except that the risk-adjusted rate of in-hospital mortality was highest in the West among patients <65 years (1.7% vs 1.2% [lowest] in the Midwest), male gender (3.2% vs 2.8% in the Midwest), and rural location (3.8% vs 3% in the Midwest). In conclusion, HF hospitalization outcomes tend to be worse in the Northeast compared with other regions of the country. In addition, the in-hospital mortality rate was higher in rural locations than in urban locations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine