Neuroendocrine systems control many of the most fundamental physiological processes, e.g., reproduction, growth, adaptations to stress, and metabolism. Each such system involves the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and a specific target gland or organ. In the quantification of the interactions among these components, biostatistical modeling has played an important role. In the present article, five key challenges to an understanding of the interactions of these systems are illustrated and discussed critically.
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