Presence of immune deficiency increases the risk of hospitalization in patients with norovirus infection

Keith A. Sacco, Thanai Pongdee, Matthew J. Binnicker, Mark Espy, Darrell Pardi, Sahil Khanna, Avni Y. Joshi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Norovirus is an emerging pathogen causing gastroenteritis. We sought to identify factors associated with clinical outcomes in a cohort of patients with laboratory-confirmed norovirus infection. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with positive norovirus polymerase chain reaction in stool between October 1, 2015, and May 31, 2016. 128 unique patients were identified during the study period, 64 of whom had immune deficiency, of which only 3 patients had a primary immune deficiency (common variable immune deficiency), while 61 patients had a secondary immune deficiency. 50% of patients with immune deficiency were hospitalized as compared to only 30% of the non-immune-deficient cohort (odds ratio: 2.1 (1.1-4.18, P = 0.04). One-third (32.8%) of the patients had a polymicrobial stool infection, and 21.1% had concurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Initial mean total leukocyte count was higher in the hospitalized group at 8.40. ×. 109/L versus 6.31. ×. 109/L in the nonhospitalized group (P = 0.049). All 13 patients presenting with fever had symptomatic resolution (P = 0.002). The presence of C. difficile infection was correlated with persistent symptoms (OR 2.30 [0.95-5.58], P = 0.067). The overall mortality rate among our cohort was 3.13% (4 patients). All deceased patients had secondary immune deficiency, and none had C. difficile coinfection. Presence of an immune deficiency increases the risk of hospitalization with norovirus infection. Absence of fever is associated with lower resolution and possibly may contribute to a persistent infectious state. Presence of concomitant C. difficile infection is correlated with a lower overall mortality rate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018


  • Clostridium difficile
  • Epidemiology
  • Hospitalization
  • Immune deficiency
  • Norovirus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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