Postoperative hypotension in patients discharged to the intensive care unit after non-cardiac surgery is associated with adverse clinical outcomes

Nathan J. Smischney, Andrew D. Shaw, Wolf H. Stapelfeldt, Isabel J. Boero, Qinyu Chen, Mitali Stevens, Ashish K. Khanna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The postoperative period is critical for a patient’s recovery, and postoperative hypotension, specifically, is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and significant harm to the patient. However, little is known about the association between postoperative hypotension in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) after non-cardiac surgery, and morbidity and mortality, specifically among patients who did not experience intraoperative hypotension. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of postoperative hypotension at various absolute hemodynamic thresholds (≤ 75, ≤ 65 and ≤ 55 mmHg), in the absence of intraoperative hypotension (≤ 65 mmHg), on outcomes among patients in the ICU following non-cardiac surgery. Methods: This multi-center retrospective cohort study included specific patient procedures from Optum® healthcare database for patients without intraoperative hypotension (MAP ≤ 65 mmHg) discharged to the ICU for ≥ 48 h after non-cardiac surgery with valid mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings. A total of 3185 procedures were included in the final cohort, and the association between postoperative hypotension and the primary outcome, 30-day major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events, was assessed. Secondary outcomes examined included all-cause 30- and 90-day mortality, 30-day acute myocardial infarction, 30-day acute ischemic stroke, 7-day acute kidney injury stage II/III and 7-day continuous renal replacement therapy/dialysis. Results: Postoperative hypotension in the ICU was associated with an increased risk of 30-day major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events at MAP ≤ 65 mmHg (hazard ratio [HR] 1.52; 98.4% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–1.96) and ≤ 55 mmHg (HR 2.02, 98.4% CI 1.50–2.72). Mean arterial pressures of ≤ 65 mmHg and ≤ 55 mmHg were also associated with higher 30-day mortality (MAP ≤ 65 mmHg, [HR 1.56, 98.4% CI 1.22–2.00]; MAP ≤ 55 mmHg, [HR 1.97, 98.4% CI 1.48–2.60]) and 90-day mortality (MAP ≤ 65 mmHg, [HR 1.49, 98.4% CI 1.20–1.87]; MAP ≤ 55 mmHg, [HR 1.78, 98.4% CI 1.38–2.31]). Furthermore, we found an association between postoperative hypotension with MAP ≤ 55 mmHg and acute kidney injury stage II/III (HR 1.68, 98.4% CI 1.02–2.77). No associations were seen between postoperative hypotension and 30-day readmissions, 30-day acute myocardial infarction, 30-day acute ischemic stroke and 7-day continuous renal replacement therapy/dialysis for any MAP threshold. Conclusions: Postoperative hypotension in critical care patients with MAP ≤ 65 mmHg is associated with adverse events even without experiencing intraoperative hypotension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number682
JournalCritical Care
Volume24
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • 30-day mortality
  • 90-day mortality
  • Acute kidney injury (AKI)
  • All-cause mortality
  • Critically ill patients
  • Dialysis
  • Intensive care setting
  • Major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE)
  • Mean arterial pressure
  • Postoperative hypotension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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