Phylogenetics and biogeography of the two-wing flyingfish (Exocoetidae: Exocoetus)

Eric A. Lewallen, Andrew J. Bohonak, Carolina A. Bonin, Andre J van Wijnen, Robert L. Pitman, Nathan R. Lovejoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Two-wing flyingfish (Exocoetus spp.) are widely distributed, epipelagic, mid-trophic organisms that feed on zooplankton and are preyed upon by numerous predators (e.g., tunas, dolphinfish, tropical seabirds), yet an understanding of their speciation and systematics is lacking. As a model of epipelagic fish speciation and to investigate mechanisms that increase biodiversity, we studied the phylogeny and biogeography of Exocoetus, a highly abundant holoepipelagic fish taxon of the tropical open ocean. Morphological and molecular data were used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships, species boundaries, and biogeographic patterns of the five putative Exocoetus species. We show that the most widespread species (E. volitans) is sister to all other species, and we find no evidence for cryptic species in this taxon. Sister relationship between E. monocirrhus (Indo-Pacific) and E. obtusirostris (Atlantic) indicates the Isthmus of Panama and/or Benguela Barrier may have played a role in their divergence via allopatric speciation. The sister species E. peruvianus and E. gibbosus are found in different regions of the Pacific Ocean; however, our molecular results do not show a clear distinction between these species, indicating recent divergence or ongoing gene flow. Overall, our phylogeny reveals that the most spatially restricted species are more recently derived, suggesting that allopatric barriers may drive speciation, but subsequent dispersal and range expansion may affect the distributions of species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1751-1761
Number of pages11
JournalEcology and Evolution
Volume7
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

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Exocoetidae
biogeography
phylogenetics
phylogeny
Coryphaenidae
allopatric speciation
tuna
Panama
fish
seabirds
Pacific Ocean
gene flow
zooplankton
oceans
biodiversity
taxonomy
predators
organisms
divergence
Exocoetus

Keywords

  • cryptic speciation
  • epipelagic
  • species delimitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation

Cite this

Lewallen, E. A., Bohonak, A. J., Bonin, C. A., van Wijnen, A. J., Pitman, R. L., & Lovejoy, N. R. (2017). Phylogenetics and biogeography of the two-wing flyingfish (Exocoetidae: Exocoetus). Ecology and Evolution, 7(6), 1751-1761. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2786

Phylogenetics and biogeography of the two-wing flyingfish (Exocoetidae : Exocoetus). / Lewallen, Eric A.; Bohonak, Andrew J.; Bonin, Carolina A.; van Wijnen, Andre J; Pitman, Robert L.; Lovejoy, Nathan R.

In: Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 7, No. 6, 01.03.2017, p. 1751-1761.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lewallen, EA, Bohonak, AJ, Bonin, CA, van Wijnen, AJ, Pitman, RL & Lovejoy, NR 2017, 'Phylogenetics and biogeography of the two-wing flyingfish (Exocoetidae: Exocoetus)', Ecology and Evolution, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1751-1761. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2786
Lewallen EA, Bohonak AJ, Bonin CA, van Wijnen AJ, Pitman RL, Lovejoy NR. Phylogenetics and biogeography of the two-wing flyingfish (Exocoetidae: Exocoetus). Ecology and Evolution. 2017 Mar 1;7(6):1751-1761. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2786
Lewallen, Eric A. ; Bohonak, Andrew J. ; Bonin, Carolina A. ; van Wijnen, Andre J ; Pitman, Robert L. ; Lovejoy, Nathan R. / Phylogenetics and biogeography of the two-wing flyingfish (Exocoetidae : Exocoetus). In: Ecology and Evolution. 2017 ; Vol. 7, No. 6. pp. 1751-1761.
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