Phosphoglucomutase 1 deficiency is a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) with multiorgan involvement affecting carbohydrate metabolism, N-glycosylation and energy production. The metabolic management consists of dietary D-galactose supplementation that ameliorates hypoglycemia, hepatic dysfunction, endocrine anomalies and growth delay. Previous studies suggest that D-galactose administration in juvenile patients leads to more significant and long-lasting effects, stressing the urge of neonatal diagnosis (0–6 months of age). Here, we detail the early clinical presentation of PGM1-CDG in eleven infantile patients, and applied the modified Beutler test for screening of PGM1-CDG in neonatal dried blood spots (DBSs). All eleven infants presented episodic hypoglycemia and elevated transaminases, along with cleft palate and growth delay (10/11), muscle involvement (8/11), neurologic involvement (5/11), cardiac defects (2/11). Standard dietary measures for suspected lactose intolerance in four patients prior to diagnosis led to worsening of hypoglycemia, hepatic failure and recurrent diarrhea, which resolved upon D-galactose supplementation. To investigate possible differences in early vs. late clinical presentation, we performed the first systematic literature review for PGM1-CDG, which highlighted respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms as significantly more diagnosed in neonatal age. The modified Butler-test successfully identified PGM1-CDG in DBSs from seven patients, including for the first time Guthrie cards from newborn screening, confirming the possibility of future inclusion of PGM1-CDG in neonatal screening programs. In conclusion, severe infantile morbidity of PGM1-CDG due to delayed diagnosis could be prevented by raising awareness on its early presentation and by inclusion in newborn screening programs, enabling early treatments and galactose-based metabolic management.
- Congenital disorder of glycosylation
- Dilated cardiomyopathy
- Exercise intolerance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology