The class B glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) G protein-coupled receptor is a major target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Endogenous and mimetic GLP-1 peptides exhibit biased agonism - a difference in functional selectivity - that may provide improved therapeutic outcomes. Here we describe the structure of the human GLP-1 receptor in complex with the G protein-biased peptide exendin-P5 and a Gα(s) heterotrimer, determined at a global resolution of 3.3 Å. At the extracellular surface, the organization of extracellular loop 3 and proximal transmembrane segments differs between our exendin-P5-bound structure and previous GLP-1-bound GLP-1 receptor structure. At the intracellular face, there was a six-degree difference in the angle of the Gαs-α5 helix engagement between structures, which was propagated across the G protein heterotrimer. In addition, the structures differed in the rate and extent of conformational reorganization of the Gα(s) protein. Our structure provides insights into the molecular basis of biased agonism.
ASJC Scopus subject areas