Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of preirradiation chemotherapy with BCNU, cisplatin, etoposide, and accelerated radiation therapy in patients with high-grade glioma

S. Vincent Rajkumar, Jan C. Buckner, Paula J. Schomberg, Joel M. Reid, Pamela J. Bagniewski, Matthew M. Ames, Terrence L. Cascino, Randolph S. Marks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: We conducted a Phase I study of bischloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU), cisplatin, and oral etoposide administered prior to and during accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy in newly diagnosed high- grade glioma. Pharmacokinetic studies of oral etoposide were also done. Methods and Materials: Patients started chemotherapy after surgery but prior to definitive radiation therapy (160 cGy twice daily x 15 days; 4800 cGy total). Initial chemotherapy consisted of BCNU 40 mg/m2 days 1-3, cisplatin 30 mg/m2 days 1-3 and 29-31, and etoposide 50 mg orally days 1-14 and 29- 42, repeated in 8 weeks concurrent with radiation therapy. BCNU 200 mg/m2 every 8 weeks x 4 cycles was given after radiation therapy. Results: Sixteen patients, 5 with grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma and 11 with glioblastoma were studied. Grade 3-4 leukopenia (38%) and thrombocytopenia (31%) were dose- limiting. Other toxicities were anorexia (81%), nausea (94%), emesis (56%), alopecia (88%), and ototoxicity (38%). The maximum tolerated dose was BCNU 40 mg/m2 days 1-3, cisplatin 20 mg/m2 days 1-3 and 29-31, and oral etoposide 50 mg days 1-21 and 29-49 prior to radiation therapy and repeated in 8 weeks with the start of radiation therapy followed by BCNU 200 mg/m2 every 8 weeks for 4 cycles. Median time to progression and survival were 13 and 14 months respectively. Responses occurred in 2 of 9 (22%) patients with evaluable disease. In pharmacokinetic studies, all patients achieved plasma concentrations of >0.1 μg/ml etoposide (the in vitro radiosensitizing threshold), following a 50 mg oral dose. The mean ± SD 2 hr and 6 hr plasma concentrations were 0.92 ± 0.43 μg/ml and 0.36 ± 0.12 μg/ml, respectively. Estimated duration of exposure to >0.1 μg/ml etoposide was 10- 17 hr. Conclusions: Preirradiation chemotherapy with BCNU, cisplatin, and oral etoposide with accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy in high- grade gliomas is feasible and merits further investigation. Sustained radiosensitizing concentrations can be achieved with low oral doses of etoposide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)969-975
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume42
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 1998

Keywords

  • Anaplastic astrocytoma
  • BCNU
  • Brain tumors
  • Chemotherapy
  • Cisplatin
  • Etoposide
  • Glioblastoma
  • Radiation therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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