Purpose: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare, progressive, genetic disease with limited treatment options. We report the efficacy and safety of lumasiran, an RNA interference therapeutic, in infants and young children with PH1. Methods: This single-arm, open-label, phase 3 study evaluated lumasiran in patients aged <6 years with PH1 and an estimated glomerular filtration rate >45 mL/min/1.73 m2, if aged ≥12 months, or normal serum creatinine, if aged <12 months. The primary end point was percent change in spot urinary oxalate to creatinine ratio (UOx:Cr) from baseline to month 6. Secondary end points included proportion of patients with urinary oxalate ≤1.5× upper limit of normal and change in plasma oxalate. Results: All patients (N = 18) completed the 6-month primary analysis period. Median age at consent was 50.1 months. Least-squares mean percent reduction in spot UOx:Cr was 72.0%. At month 6, 50% of patients (9/18) achieved spot UOx:Cr ≤1.5× upper limit of normal. Least-squares mean percent reduction in plasma oxalate was 31.7%. The most common treatment-related adverse events were transient, mild, injection-site reactions. Conclusion: Lumasiran showed rapid, sustained reduction in spot UOx:Cr and plasma oxalate and acceptable safety in patients aged <6 years with PH1, establishing RNA interference therapies as safe, effective treatment options for infants and young children.
- Young children
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