Objectives To assess the relationship between alcoholic etiology, tobacco use, and severe acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods Smoking and alcohol exposure were recorded upon admission in a cohort of patients with AP within the United States. Patients with first, "sentinel" attack of AP were identified for analysis. Associations between alcohol, smoking, and severe AP were validated in an independent cohort of patients from Spain. Results US cohort (n = 222): Thirty-five percent developed organ failure (OF), 35% pancreatic necrosis (PNec), and 7% died. OF (54% vs 33%, P = 0.03), PNec (62% vs 31%, P = 0.006), intensive care unit admission (58% vs 36%, P = 0.03), and length of stay (LOS) (20 vs 8 days, P = 0.007) were greater in alcoholic when compared to other etiologies. Spanish cohort (n = 366): Similar differences in outcomes were also found with between alcoholic and nonalcoholic etiologies: OF (24% vs 8%, P = 0.001), PNec (38% vs 14%, P < 0.001), intensive care unit admission (20% vs 3%, P < 0.001), and LOS (17 vs 11 days, P = 0.04). Multivariable analysis confirmed alcoholic etiology to be independently associated with OF and PNec in both cohorts. Conclusions Alcoholic etiology is independently associated with OF and PNec in patients with sentinel AP and is important when evaluating risk for severe disease in AP.
- Acute pancreatitis
- Pancreatic necrosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism