Pathogenic potential of IgG binding to water channel extracellular domain in neuromyelitis optica

S. R. Hinson, S. J. Pittock, C. F. Lucchinetti, S. F. Roemer, J. P. Fryer, T. J. Kryzer, V. A. Lennon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

348 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 astrocytic water channel is restricted to serum and CSF of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and related CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders (relapsing optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis). NMO-typical lesions are distinct from MS-typical lesions. Aquaporin-4 is lost selectively at vasculocentric sites of edema/inflammation coinciding with focal deposits of immunoglobulins (Ig) G, M, and terminal complement products, with and without myelin loss. Evidence for antigen-specific autoantibody pathogenicity is lacking. METHODS: We used confocal microscopy and flow cytometry to evaluate the selectivity and immunopathological consequences of Ig binding to surface epitopes of living target cells expressing aquaporin-4 fused at its cytoplasmic N-terminus with GFP. We tested serum, IgG-enriched and IgG-depleted serum fractions, and CSF from patients with NMO, neurologic control patients, and healthy subjects. We also analyzed aquaporin-4 immunoreactivity in myelinated adult mouse optic nerves and spinal cord, and plasma cell Ig isotypes in archived brain tissue from an NMO patient. RESULTS: Serum IgG from patients with NMO binds to the extracellular domain of aquaporin-4; it is predominantly IgG1, and it initiates two potentially competing outcomes, aquaporin-4 endocytosis/degradation and complement activation. Serum and CSF lack aquaporin-4-specific IgM, and plasma cells in CNS lesions of NMO contain only IgG. Paranodal astrocytic endfeet highly express aquaporin-4. CONCLUSIONS: NMO patients' serum IgG has a selective pathologic effect on cell membranes expressing aquaporin-4. IgG targeting astrocytic processes around nodes of Ranvier could initiate demyelination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2221-2231
Number of pages11
JournalNeurology
Volume69
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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