Results of recent clinical trials and experimental studies indicate that whereas atherosclerotic renovascular disease can accelerate both systemic hypertension and tissue injury in the poststenotic kidney, restoring vessel patency alone is insufficient to recover kidney function formost subjects. Kidney injury in atherosclerotic renovascular disease reflects complex interactions among vascular rarefication, oxidative stress injury, and recruitment of inflammatory cellular elements that ultimately produce fibrosis. Classic paradigms for simply restoring blood flow are shifting to implementation of therapy targeting mitochondria and cell-based functions to allow regeneration of vascular, glomerular, and tubular structures sufficient to recover, or at least stabilize, renal function. These developments offer exciting possibilities of repair and regeneration of kidney tissue thatmaylimit progressiveCKDin atherosclerotic renovascular disease and may apply to other conditions in which inflammatory injury is amajor common pathway.
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