Background: Patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and a history of chest radiation therapy represent a complex and challenging cohort. It is unknown how transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) compares with surgical aortic valve replacement in this group of patients, which was the objective of this study. Methods and Results: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent either TAVR or surgical aortic valve replacement at our institution with a history of mediastinal radiation (n=55 per group). End points were echocardiographic and clinical outcomes in-hospital, at 30 days, and at 1 year. Inverse propensity weighting analysis was used to account for intergroup baseline differences. TAVR patients had a higher STS score than surgical aortic valve replacement patients (5.1% [3.2, 7.7] versus 1.6% [0.8, 2.6], P<0.001) and more often (P<0.01 for all) a history of atrial fibrillation (45.5% versus 12.7%), chronic lung disease (47.3% versus 7.3%), peripheral arterial disease (38.2% versus 7.3%), heart failure (58.2% versus 18.2%), and pacemaker therapy (23.6% versus 1.8%). Postoperative atrial fibrillation was less frequent (1.8% versus 27.3%; P<0.001) and hospital stay was shorter in TAVR patients (4.0 [2.0, 5.0] versus 6.0 [5.0, 8.0] days; P<0.001). The ratio of observed-to-expected 30-day mortality was lower after TAVR as was 30-day mortality in inverse propensity weighting–adjusted Kaplan–Meier analyses. Conclusions: In patients with severe aortic stenosis and a history of chest radiation therapy, TAVR performs better than predicted along with less adjusted 30-day all-cause mortality, postoperative atrial fibrillation, and shorter hospitalization compared with surgical aortic valve replacement. These data support further studies on the preferred role of TAVR in this unique patient population.
- aortic valve implantation
- aortic valve stenosis
- transcatheter aortic valve implantation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine