Osteonecrosis (ON) of the femoral head, also known as avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, is a progressive disease that predominantly affects younger patients. During early stage of ON, decompression of the femoral head has been commonly used to improve pain. The decompression has been augmented with nonvascularized or vascularized bone grafts, mesenchymal stems cells, and growth factors. The use of adjuvant growth factors to supplement the core decompression has mainly been limited to animal models in an attempt to regenerate the necrotic lesion of ON. Factors utilized include bone morphogenetic proteins, vascular endothelial growth factors, hepatocyte growth factors, fibroblast growth factors, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, and stem cells factors. In animal models, the use of these factors has been shown to increase bone formation and angiogenesis. Although promising, the use of these growth factors and cell-based therapies clinically remains limited.
- Avascular necrosis
- Bone morphogenic protein
- Growth factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine