Background: While low bone density is a major burden on US health system, current osteoporosis screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force are limited to women aged ≥65 and all postmenopausal women with certain risk factors. Even within recommended screening groups, actual screening rates are low (<26%) and vary across socioeconomic groups. The proposed model can opportunistically screen patients using abdominal CT studies for low bone density who may otherwise go undiagnosed. Purpose: To develop an artificial intelligence (AI) model for opportunistic screening of low bone density using both contrast and non-contrast abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) exams, for the purpose of referral to traditional bone health management, which typically begins with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: We collected 6083 contrast-enhanced CT imaging exams paired with DXA exams within ±6 months documented between May 2015 and August 2021 in a single institution with four major healthcare practice regions. Our fusion AI pipeline receives the coronal and axial plane images of a contrast enhanced abdominopelvic CT exam and basic patient demographics (age, gender, body cross section lengths) to predict risk of low bone mass. The models were trained on lumbar spine T-scores from DXA exams and tested on multi-site imaging exams. The model was again tested in a prospective group (N = 344) contrast-enhanced and non-contrast-enhanced studies. Results: The models were evaluated on the same test set (1208 exams)—(1) Baseline model using demographic factors from electronic medical records (EMR) - 0.7 area under the curve of receiver operator characteristic (AUROC); Imaging based models: (2) axial view - 0.83 AUROC; (3) coronal view- 0.83 AUROC; (4) Fusion model—Imaging + demographic factors - 0.86 AUROC. The prospective test yielded one missed positive DXA case with a hip prosthesis among 23 positive contrast-enhanced CT exams and 0% false positive rate for non-contrast studies. Both positive cases among non-contrast enhanced CT exams were successfully detected. While only about 8% patients from prospective study received a DXA exam within 2 years, about 30% were detected with low bone mass by the fusion model, highlighting the need for opportunistic screening. Conclusions: The fusion model, which combines two planes of CT images and EMRs data, outperformed individual models and provided a high, robust diagnostic performance for opportunistic screening of low bone density using contrast and non-contrast CT exams. This model could potentially improve bone health risk assessment with no additional cost. The model's handling of metal implants is an ongoing effort.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Accepted/In press - 2023|
- fusion model
- fusion of CT with demographic data
- opportunistic screening for osteoporosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging