Oligodendroglial tumors are relatively rare, comprising approximately 5% of all glial neoplasms. Oligodendroglial tumor patients have a better prognosis than those with astrocytic neoplasms, and patients with tumors that contain 1p/19q co-deletions or IDH-1 mutations appear to be particularly sensitive to treatment. In the past decade, scientists have made significant progress in the unraveling the molecular events that relate to the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. There is considerable excitement resulting from the recent reports from two large phase III randomized trials (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] 26951 and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] 9402), which disclosed that patients with newly diagnosed 1p/19q co-deleted anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors have a 7+year increase in median overall survival following chemoradiation, as compared to radiation alone. This has stimulated a renewed interest in the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment and potential cure of oligodendroglial tumors, based on an improved scientific understanding of the molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. The goal of this document is to summarize the key translational developments and recent clinical therapeutic trial data, with a correlative perspective on current and future directions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas