Normative model of human hand for biomechanical analysis

K. N. An, E. Y. Chao, W. P. Cooney, R. L. Linscheid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

181 Scopus citations


A three-dimensional normative model of the hand was established, based on the averaged anatomical structure of ten normal hand specimens. The joint and tendon orientations were defined from biplanar X-ray films. The configurations of the hand at the joints were described by the classic Eulerian angles. Force potential and moment potential parameters were utilized to describe the contribution of each tendon in the force analysis. The mean values of these two parameters were used to compute the designated two points for each tendon at each joint in the normative model. With appropriate coordinate transformations at the joints, the tendon locations and excursions under various functional configurations can be computed. This model can be used to perform force and motion analyses for both normal and pathological hands.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)775-788
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1979

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Rehabilitation

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    An, K. N., Chao, E. Y., Cooney, W. P., & Linscheid, R. L. (1979). Normative model of human hand for biomechanical analysis. Journal of Biomechanics, 12(10), 775-788.