There is increasing evidence that vitamin D may protect against breast cancer. Some studies have suggested that dietary and supplemental vitamin D is associated with reduced mammographic density, which is highly associated with breast cancer risk, although this evidence is not entirely consistent. We investigated a possible association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), the best indicator of vitamin D status, and quantitative mammographic density in the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study. Mean values of mammographic density (both percent and area densities) and circulating levels of 25OHD were compared across categories of covariates using ANOVA. Models were adjusted for age and body mass index, as well as other covariates, and also stratified by dietary calcium intake, menopause, and season. Serum, mammographic density, and questionnaire data were available from 487 women [133 premenopausal and 354 postmenopausal; mean age, 56.4 years (range, 27-85 years] without breast cancer, and for 73%, the blood was drawn within 1 year of their mammogram. No evidence was found for an association between 25OHD and either percent density or total dense area. There was also no evidence for any association when the data were stratified by season of sample (winter and summer) or menopause. However, both percent density and dense area were lowest among those in the highest vitamin D quartile with calcium intake above the median. Unlike some previous reports, vitamin D does not seem to be related to mammographic density in this cohort.
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