Background We retrospectively reviewed the neuroimaging findings of patients with Cowden syndrome and determined their frequency in a single cohort. Methods Electronic medical records were queried from January 1999 to January 2017 to identify patients who fit the clinical criteria for diagnosis of Cowden syndrome with or without a documented PTEN mutation. Patients with brain MRI examinations were then identified. Results We retrospectively identified 44 patients with Cowden syndrome, 22 of whom had neuroimaging for review. Eleven (50%) had Lhermitte-Duclos disease, 4 (18.1%) had meningiomas, 13 (59.1%) had at least one developmental venous anomaly, 3 had cavernous malformations, 2 had evidence of dural arteriovenous fistula, 7 had increased white matter signal abnormalities relative to age (31.8%), 4 had prominent perivascular spaces, cerebellar tonsillar ectopia was present in 7 of 21 (33.3%), and 1 had cortical malformation. Conclusions It is important to recognize that in addition to Lhermitte-Duclos disease, other intracranial findings such as multiple venous anomalies, meningiomas, greater than expected white matter signal abnormality, prominent perivascular spaces, and cortical malformations may warrant a thorough evaluation for Cowden syndrome in the appropriate clinical setting. We further recommend that this broader spectrum of intracranial abnormalities be considered for addition to the Cowden syndrome diagnostic criteria at the time of next revision.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology