A hallmark of congestive heart failure (CHF) is the activation of the cardiac endocrine system, in particular atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The natriuretic peptides are a group of structurally similar but genetically distinct peptides that have diverse actions in cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine homeostasis. ANP and BNP are of myocardial cell origin and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is of endothelial origin. ANP and BNP bind to the natriuretic peptide-A receptor (NPR-A), which, via 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), mediates natriuresis, vasodilatation, renin inhibition, antimitogenesis, and lusitropic properties. CNP lacks natriuretic actions but possesses vasodilating and growth inhibiting actions via the guanylyl cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide-B receptor. All three peptides are cleared by the natriuretic peptide-C receptor and degraded by the ectoenzyme neutral endopeptidase 24.11, both of which are widely expressed in kidney, lung, and vascular wall. Recently, a fourth member of the natriuretic peptide, Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) has been reported to be present in human plasma and atrial myocardium and is elevated in plasma of human CHF.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine