Myoclonus has now been recognized to have many possible etiologies, anatomical sources, and pathophysiologic features. Classification schemes may be based on clinical syndromes and etiology, neurophysiology properties, or exam findings. In recent years, many myoclonus case reports and short series have been published. However, this article will group new developments into three areas: (1) Myoclonus in parkinsonian disorders, (2) Concepts in myoclonus generation, and (3) Treatment. Current findings do not allow one to conclude whether or how parkinsonism contributes to the myoclonus mechanism in parkinsonian disorders. Therefore, it seems unlikely that the myoclonus in Lewy body disorders is mostly caused by abnormal basal ganglia input to motor areas of the neocortex. The exact source of cortical myoclonus generation is controversial. Increased corticomuscular coherence represents a robust phenomenon that will need to be explained by any model that offers a putative explanation for cortical myoclonus generation. Myoclonus treatment is still limited, and more research on basic mechanisms before truly effective treatment will be available. The best approach for myoclonus is based on the physiological classification of the myoclonus.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology