Between 1967 and 2017, 361 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), age ≤ 40 years, were seen at our institution, constituting 12% of all MPN patients (n = 3023) seen during the same time period; disease-specific incidences were 12% in polycythemia vera (PV; n = 79), 20% in essential thrombocythemia (ET; n = 219) and 5% in primary myelofibrosis (PMF; n = 63). Compared to their older counterparts, younger patients were more likely to present with low risk disease (P <.001) and display female preponderance in ET (P =.04), lower incidence of arterial events overall (P <.001), and higher incidence of venous thrombosis in PV (P =.01). Younger patients were also more likely to express CALR mutations, in ET and PMF, normal karyotype, in PV and PMF, and lower incidence of high molecular risk mutations in PMF (P significant in all instances). Over median follow-up of 11.3, 13, and 7.1 years for PV, ET, and PMF, leukemic transformations were respectively documented in 4%, 2%, and 10% (P values 0.1-0.9) while incidences of fibrotic progression in PV (22%) and ET (16%) were expectedly higher in young patients, because of their longer survival (P <.001). Median survival in young patients was 37 years for PV, 35 for ET and 20 for PMF; the corresponding values were 22, 22, and 8 years for ages 41-60 years and 10, 11, and 3 years for ages >60 years (P <.001). Young MPN patients comprise a unique disease subset defined by an attenuated-risk cytogenetic and mutational backdrop and conspicuously longer survival compared to their older counterparts, which requires assertion during patient counseling.
ASJC Scopus subject areas