Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is FDA-approved for use in patients with Barrett's esophagus using porfimer sodium (2 mg per kg) and a recommended light dose of 130 J cm-1 for high grade dysplasia. Despite uniform drug and light doses, the clinical outcome of PDT is variable. A significant number of PDT cases result in esophageal strictures, a side effect related to excessive energy absorption. The purpose of this project was to model esophageal stricture formation with a Monte Carlo simulation. An original multilayer Monte Carlo computer simulation was developed for esophageal PDT. Optical absorption and scattering coefficients were derived for mucosal and muscle layers of normal porcine esophagus. Porfimer sodium was added to each layer by increasing the absorption coefficient by the appropriate amount. A threshold-absorbed light dose was assumed to be required for stricture formation and ablation. The simulation predicted irreversible damage to the mucosa with a 160 J cm -1 light dose and damage to the muscle layer with an additional 160 J cm-1 light dose for a tissue porfimer sodium content of 3.5 mg kg-1. The simulation accurately modeled photodynamic stricture formation in normal pig in vivo esophageal tissue. This preliminary work suggests that the absorbed light threshold for stricture formation may be between 2 and 4 J per gram of tissue.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry