MOG and AQP4 Antibodies among Children with Multiple Sclerosis and Controls

United States Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG and aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG among patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) and healthy controls, to determine whether seropositive cases fulfilled their respective diagnostic criteria, to compare characteristics and outcomes in children with POMS versus MOG-IgG-associated disease (MOGAD), and identify clinical features associated with final diagnosis. Methods: Patients with POMS and healthy controls were enrolled at 14 US sites through a prospective case–control study on POMS risk factors. Serum AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG were assessed using live cell-based assays. Results: AQP4-IgG was negative among all 1,196 participants, 493 with POMS and 703 healthy controls. MOG-IgG was positive in 30 of 493 cases (6%) and zero controls. Twenty-five of 30 patients positive with MOG-IgG (83%) had MOGAD, whereas 5 of 30 (17%) maintained a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) on re-review of records. MOGAD cases were more commonly in female patients (21/25 [84%] vs 301/468 [64%]; p = 0.044), younger age (mean = 8.2 ± 4.2 vs 14.7 ± 2.6 years; p < 0.001), more commonly had initial optic nerve symptoms (16/25 [64%] vs 129/391 [33%]; p = 0.002), or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM; 8/25 [32%] vs 9/468 [2%]; p < 0.001), and less commonly had initial spinal cord symptoms (3/20 [15%] vs 194/381 [51%]; p = 0.002), serum Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) positivity (11/25 [44%] vs 445/468 [95%]; p < 0.001), or cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands (5/25 [20%] vs 243/352 [69%]; p < 0.001). Interpretation: MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG were not identified among healthy controls confirming their high specificity for pediatric central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease. Five percent of those with prior POMS diagnoses ultimately had MOGAD; and none had AQP4-IgG positivity. Clinical features associated with a final diagnosis of MOGAD in those with suspected MS included initial ADEM phenotype, younger age at disease onset, and lack of EBV exposure. ANN NEUROL 2022.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAnnals of neurology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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