Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a powerful insulin secretagogue that is secreted in response to meal ingestion. The ability to quantify the effect of GLP-1 on insulin secretion could provide insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes. We used a modification of a model of GLP-1 action on insulin secretion using data from a hyperglycemic clamp with concomitant GLP-1 infusion. We tested this model using data from a mixed meal test (MMT), thereby measuring GLP-1-induced potentiation of insulin secretion in response to a meal. Materials and Methods: The GLP-1 model is based on the oral C-peptide minimal model and assumes that over-basal insulin secretion depends linearly on GLP-1 concentration through the parameter Π, representing the β-cell sensitivity to GLP-1. The model was tested on 62 subjects across the spectrum of glucose tolerance (age, 53 ± 1 years; body mass index, 29.7 ± 0.6 kg/m2) studied with an MMT and provided a precise estimate of both β-cell responsivity and Π indices. By combining Π with a measure of L-cell responsivity to glucose, one obtains a potentiation index (PI) (i.e., a measure of the L-cell's function in relation to prevailing β-cell sensitivity to GLP-1). Results: Model-based measurement of GLP-1-induced insulin secretion demonstrates that the PI is significantly reduced in people with impaired glucose tolerance, compared with those with normal glucose tolerance. Conclusions: We describe a model that can quantitate the GLP-1-based contribution to insulin secretion in response to meal ingestion. This methodology will allow a better understanding of β-cell function at various stages of glucose tolerance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Medical Laboratory Technology