Percutaneous paravalvular leak (PVL) closure has emerged as a feasible alternative to redo valve surgery. However, comparative data on percutaneous and surgical treatment of PVL are scarce. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies on percutaneous and surgical treatments of PVL. Of the 2,267 studies screened, 22 eligible studies were analyzed. Primary end points were technical success, 30-day mortality, stroke, and length of stay. Secondary end points were 1-year mortality, readmission for heart failure, reoperation, and symptomatic improvement at follow-up. A total of 2,373 patients were included, of whom 1,511 (63.7%) underwent percutaneous closure. Technical success was higher with surgery (96.7% vs 72.1%, odds ratio [OR] 9.7, p <0.001) but at the cost of higher 30-day mortality (8.6% vs 6.8%, OR 1.90, p <0.001), a trend toward higher stroke (3.3% vs 1.4%, OR 1.94, p = 0.069), and longer hospitalizations. However, surgery was associated with similar 1-year mortality (17.3% vs 17.2%, OR 1.07, p = 0.67), reoperation (9.1% vs 9.9%, OR 0.72, p = 0.1), readmission for heart failure (13.3% vs 26.4%, OR 0.51, p = 0.29), and improvement in New York Heart Association classification (67.4% vs 56%, OR 1.37, p = 0.74), compared with percutaneous closure. A sensitivity analysis including comparative studies only yielded similar results. Surgical treatment of PVL achieves higher technical success rates but is associated with higher early morbidity and mortality compared with percutaneous closure. Nevertheless, mortality rates and clinical efficacy parameters were similar at midterm with both procedures. Further studies are warranted to identify the ideal management approach to patients with symptomatic PVL.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine