Mayo Normative Studies: Regression-Based Normative Data for the Auditory Verbal Learning Test for Ages 30-91 Years and the Importance of Adjusting for Sex

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Abstract

Objective: Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is a widely used word list memory test. We update normative data to include adjustment for verbal memory performance differences between men and women and illustrate the effect of this sex adjustment and the importance of excluding participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normative samples. Method: This study advances the Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) by using a new population-based sample through the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, which randomly samples residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from age- and sex-stratified groups. Regression-based normative T-score formulas were derived from 4428 cognitively unimpaired adults aged 30-91 years. Fully adjusted T-scores correct for age, sex, and education. We also derived T-scores that correct for (1) age or (2) age and sex. Test-retest reliability data are provided. Results: From raw score analyses, sex explained a significant amount of variance in performance above and beyond age (8-10%). Applying original age-adjusted MOANS norms to the current sample resulted in significantly fewer-than-expected participants with low delayed recall performance, particularly in women. After application of new T-scores adjusted only for age, even in normative data derived from this sample, these age-adjusted T-scores showed scores <40 T occurred more frequently among men and less frequently among women relative to T-scores that also adjusted for sex. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of using normative data that adjust for sex with measures of verbal memory and provide new normative data that allow for this adjustment for the AVLT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-226
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Volume27
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Cognitive aging
  • Memory
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Neuropsychology
  • Psychometrics
  • Reliability and validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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