The treatment of multiple myeloma has changed dramatically in the last decade with the introduction of thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide. Patients eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are treated with non-alkylating agent-containing regimens as initial therapy; typically thalidomide-dexamethasone or lenalidomide-dexamethasone. For patients not eligible for ASCT, the current standard of care is melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide. Ongoing trials will soon assess if combinations including melphalan and prednisone plus bortezomib or MP plus lenalidomide may be considered an attractive option. Patients who have risk factors, such as deletion 13 or translocation t(4;14) or t(14;16), are candidates for novel, more aggressive treatments.
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