Malate dehydrogenase, circular dichroism difference spectra of porcine heart mitochondrial and supernatant enzymes, binary enzyme-coenzyme, and ternary enzyme-coenzyme-substrate analog complexes.

N. L. Eberhardt, R. G. Wolfe

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Circular dichroism spectra and circular dichroism difference spectra, generated when porcine heart mitochondrial and supernatant malate dehydrogenase bind coenzymes or when enzyme dihydroincotinamide nucleotide binary complexes bind substrate analogs, are presented. No significant changes are observed in protein chromophores in the 200- to 240-nm spectral range indicating that there is apparently little or no perturbation of the alpha helix or peptide backbone when binary or ternary complexes are formed. Quite different spectral perturbances occur in the two enzymes with reduced coenzyme binding as well as with substrate-analog binding by enzyme-reduced coenzyme binding. Comparison of spectral perturbations in both enzymes with oxidized or reduced coenzyme binding suggests that the dihydronicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme interacts with or perturbs indirectly the environment of aromatic amino acid residues. Reduced coenzyme binding apparently perturbs tyrosine residues in both mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and lactic dehydrogenase. Reduced coenzyme binding perturbs tyrosine and tryptophan residues in supernatant malate dehydrogenase. The number of reduced coenzyme binding sites was determined to be two per 70,000 daltons in the mitochondrial enzyme, and the reduced coenzyme dissociation constants, determined through the change in ellipticity at 260 nm, with dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding, were found to be good agreement with published values (Holbrook, J. J., and Wolfe, R. G. (1972) Biochemistry 11, 2499-2502) obtained through fluorescence-binding studies and indicate no apparent extra coenzyme binding sites. When D-malate forms a ternary complex with malate dehydrogenase-reduced coenzyme complexes, perturbation of both adenine and dihydronicotinamide chromophores is evident. L-Malate binding, however, apparently produces only a perturbation of the adenine chromophore in such complexes. Since the coenzyme has been found to bind in an open conformation on the surface of the enzyme and the substrate analogs bind at or very near the dihydronicotinamide moiety binding site, protein conformational changes are implicated during ternary complex formation with D-malate which can effect the adenine chromophore at some distance from the substrate binding site.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2987-2992
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 25 1975
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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