The broad importance of dementia is undisputed, with Alzheimer's disease justifiably getting the most attention. However, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia, now called Lewy body dementias, are the second most common type of degenerative dementia in patients older than 65 years. Despite this, Lewy body dementias receive little attention and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal management. Over the past 10 years, considerable effort has gone into improving diagnostic accuracy by refining diagnostic criteria and using imaging and other biomarkers. Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia share the same pathophysiology, and effective treatments will depend not only on successful treatment of symptoms but also on targeting the pathological mechanisms of disease, ideally before symptoms and clinical signs develop. We summarise the most pertinent progress from the past 10 years, outlining some of the challenges for the future, which will require refinement of diagnosis and clarification of the pathogenesis, leading to disease-modifying treatments.
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