In this study we evaluated the association between cytomegalovirus infection alone or in relation to human leukocyte antigen matching and the development of vanishing bile duct syndrome, a form of chronic hepatic allograft rejection. A total of 81 consecutive liver transplant recipients were studied. Cytomegalovirus infection developed in 46 recipients (57%), and vanishing bile duct syndrome occurred in 9 recipients (11%). Cytomegalovirus infection developed in only five of the nine patients with vanishing bile duct syndrome. Univariate analysis of pretransplant recipient/donor cytomegalovirus serological tests and human leukocyte antigen typing showed they were not significant risk factors for the development of vanishing bile duct syndrome. Time-dependent analysis of cytomegalovirus infection after transplantation as a risk factor for vanishing bile duct syndrome, in a multivariate analysis with human leukocyte antigen match, showed no statistical significance. In our study, no association was found between cytomegalovirus infection alone or in relation to class I or II human leukocyte antigen match and the subsequent development of vanishing bile duct syndrome.
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