Kallikrein markers performance in pretreatment blood to predict early prostate cancer recurrence and metastasis after radical prostatectomy among very high-risk men

Melissa J. Assel, Hans David Ulmert, R. Jeffery Karnes, Stephen A. Boorjian, David W. Hillman, Andrew J. Vickers, George G. Klee, Hans Lilja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: To assess whether a prespecified statistical model based on the four kallikrein markers measured in blood—total, free, and intact prostate-specific antigen (PSA), together with human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (hK2)—or any individual marker measured in pretreatment serum were associated with biochemical recurrence-free (BCR) or metastasis-free survival after radical prostatectomy (RP) in a subgroup of men with very high-risk disease. Methods: We identified 106 men treated at Mayo Clinic from 2004 to 2008 with pathological Gleason grade group 4 to 5 or seminal vesicle invasion at RP. Univariable and multivariable Cox models were used to test the association between standard predictors (Kattan nomogram and GPSM [Gleason, PSA, seminal vesicle and margin status] score), kallikrein panel, and individual kallikrein markers with the outcomes. Results: BCR and metastasis occurred in 67 and 30 patients, respectively. The median follow-up for patients who did not develop a BCR was 10.3 years (interquartile range = 8.2-11.8). In this high-risk group, neither Kattan risk, GPSM score, or the kallikrein panel model was associated with either outcome. However, after adjusting for Kattan risk and GPSM score, separately, preoperative intact PSA was associated with both outcomes while hK2 was associated with metastasis-free survival. Conclusions: Conventional risk prediction tools were poor discriminators for risk of adverse outcomes after RP (Kattan risk and GPSM risk) in patients with very high-risk disease. Further studies are needed to define the role of individual kallikrein marker forms in the blood to predict adverse prostate cancer outcomes after RP in this high-risk setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-56
Number of pages6
JournalProstate
Volume80
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • kallikreins
  • prediction models
  • prostate cancer
  • prostate-specific antigen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology

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